Incorporating Time in Job Stress Models, Concepts, Measures, Measurement Occasions, and Statistical Analyses

Prof. Christian Dormann
Professor Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz

Longitudinal designs provide the opportunity to better understand psychological stress processes over time. As various types of longitudinal designs have become increasingly common, several scholars have suggested that the adoption of a temporal approach is needed for the advancement of our field. However, confusion exists regarding the best combination of designs and statistical analyses for testing different sorts of hypotheses that propose temporal relations. In this presentation, an overview is provided of different commonly applied analyses, their assumptions regarding the role of time, the kind of data/design required for their applications, the interpretations that can be derived, and their limitations. Special emphasis is placed upon the mutual influence of different psychological processes across time, that is, their possible reciprocal effects and moderated effects. Although temporal effects can be investigated using various designs and analyses, I also discuss new developments and their advantages, such as designs with interindividually and intraindividudally varying time intervals, and continuous time structural equation modeling (ctsem), which is a very useful extension of common (discrete time) structural equation models.

Christian Dormann has been the Chair of the Business Education & Management at the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany, since 2013 after he had hold chairs of Business Psychology and of Work & Organisational Psychology. Since 2011, Christian Dormann has also been adjunct research professor at the School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy at the University of South Australia (UNISA). He served as an editor of the European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology and as associate and consulting editor of several other journals, including the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. His research focus is on stress in organizations and on methods of the analysis of change. In particular, he has been interested in psychosocial aspects of work. Among other high-ranking journals, he has published in the Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Applied Psychology, Psychological Methods, and Psychological Bulletin.